International Herald Tribune
Timely American wisdom
By Rami G. Khouri
Tuesday, August 19, 2008
Few observers expect the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli negotiations between the governments of Mahmoud Abbas and Ehud Olmert to achieve any significant breakthrough during the remaining months of President George W. Bush's term. One reason for the low expectations from the negotiations spawned by the Annapolis meeting in the United States last November is the low-key mediating role of the United States itself.
Ample experiences since the 1970s suggest that active external mediation is essential for success, due to low trust among the main protagonists and the need for foreign security guarantees and development aid that typically seal a peace deal in this region.
Whatever happens in coming months, the stage is set for the next American administration to play an active role in Arab-Israeli peace-making - should it decide to do so.
The odds are that it will, for two key reasons: Arab-Israeli peace-making can impact positively and quickly on almost every other American national interest in the Middle East, and American abstinence from peace-making - as during the past eight years - contributes to aggravating multiple local conflicts and radicalizing trends throughout the region.
If the next American administration takes the plunge, it will have a timely, honest and very practical handbook on which to draw for guidance. The U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) has just published a compact but rich little book entitled "Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: American Leadership in the Middle East."
It is the work of respected scholars and former officials who reviewed America's involvement in Arab-Israeli peacemaking during the last three administrations, covering the Bush-Clinton-Bush eras since 1990.
Headed by former ambassador Daniel C. Kurtzer and USIP senior research associate Scott B. Lasensky, and including William Quandt, Steven Spiegel and Shibley Telhami, the group interviewed some 150 officials and activists in the United States and the Middle East to assess their views of Washington's role as a mediator since the end of the Cold War.
They identified "an alarming pattern of mismanaged diplomacy...both strategic and tactical. ... U.S. involvement has been characterized by fits and starts, errors of omission and commission and fundamental weaknesses in policy formulation and execution. Rhetoric all too often has replaced action....Opportunities were squandered, potential breakthroughs missed and meaningful advances stalled unnecessarily."
Noting that Arab-Israeli peace is a strategic American interest and that Washington's direct involvement is indispensable for success, the study gives George H.W. Bush's administration higher marks than the Clinton or George W. Bush teams.
It then offers 10 lessons learned that should be required reading for any American or other external mediator in the Middle East. The most important ones are: U.S. policy should be made in the United States, not in foreign countries (like Israel, it specifically said). The United States should take initiatives and not only respond to openings, and should transcend incrementalism and aim instead for an endgame, not shying away from offering its own proposals.
Washington should play a strong role as monitor of compliance with agreements reached. Broad and bipartisan domestic support is needed, but policy should not be "held captive to the agendas of domestic groups" (where the study pointed out examples of inordinate influence of pro-Israeli groups).
Washington should use its full diplomatic toolbox judiciously (summitry, economic aid, unofficial diplomacy, assurances and understandings), with strategic objectives in mind, and not only to buy time.
The report's gently devastating critique of actual American performance is coupled with a call for U.S. re-engagement, with several recommendations: The next U.S. administration should make Arab-Israeli peace-making a high priority based on a strategy to end the conflict by locking in the gains of the past while balancing bilateral with multilateral efforts, using nontraditional diplomacy, and reassessing the utility of existing mechanisms such as the Quartet.
A final note addresses the "fact of life" that "Israel plays an outsized role in U.S. politics and diplomacy." The challenge is how to use the U.S.-Israeli special relationship to promote peace for all by crafting a "fair and effective U.S. role," rather than diminishing that special relationship.
The report calls on the next administration to use experts who are as familiar with Arab societies as they are with Israel, so as to "restore the U.S. role to its historical purpose of helping the parties to achieve their core requirements."
The USIP should be commended for this study that reflects the best American tradition of honest self-assessment anchored in facts, rather than partisan ideology. The next administration would do well to read it and ponder its recommendations seriously.
Rami G. Khouri is editor-at-large of The Daily Star and director of the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut.